History of the Universe

It all started with energy. Energy is used to create everything there is today. The first existing atom is Hydrogen. 13.7 million years ago Hydrogen atoms created galaxy. Gravity then squeezes together clouds and dust together causing pressure and heat to rise. And that is when Hydrogen atoms start to merge creating Helium. This is how stars are made. Stars produces elements, it helps combine hydrogen into helium, helium into lithium and many more elements. Another way of producing elements is when stars explode. These explosions are called supernovas. The explosion provides enough energy to create other elements such as uranium gold and the rest of the elements.

As time pass by stars keeps exploding and reappearing until there are enough material to create a new star which is our Sun. The remaining materials are then used to create planets. The lighter materials on Earth would form a crust on the surface while the heavier material forms a molten iron core. The core generates a magnetic force that will protect our planet from danger.

4.5 billion years ago, an object collided with Earth. The debris is then gathered by gravity and orbits around the Earth. This debris will then construct into a planet which we now call Moon. The collision causes the Earth to tilt on its axis giving Earth seasons. The Moon provides Earth stability and it also slows down Earth’s rotation which lengthens our days from 6 hours into 24 hours.

4.4 billion years ago, Earth is still hot for water to exist. As the Earth cools down, water vapour would eventually turn into rain. The rain that pours down would create the ocean. After 1.3 billion years, 6 elements under the ocean forge together creating DNA and bacteria. These bacteria need energy to survive and they somehow found a way to live on the Sun’s energy. The bacteria produce oxygen as waste. Since the ocean was packed with iron particles, the oxygen will cause it to rust. When there’s no more iron to rust, the oxygen fills up the ocean and into the atmosphere. This is when some bacteria learn how to live on oxygen. The Earth would become more complex where continents starts to appear.

550 million years ago, Oxygen has filled the Earth. Beneath the ocean, Cambrian explosion occurs. Spawning different organisms also known as our ancestors. Plants starts to grow and animals starts to live on land. As plants starts to die, it is buried and compacted turning into coal. 250 million years ago, the biggest volcanic eruption filled the atmosphere with carbon dioxide. Many animals start to die and extinct. Then comes new species to dominate our planet, the dinosaurs. The dinosaurs prevent our ancestors from evolving. But it all changes when an asteroid hits the Earth 65 million years ago. The impact causes every creature weighing 50 pounds over to extinct. That is how the dinosaur era ended. After the disappearance of dinosaur, our ancestors start to evolve into primates.

50 million years ago, in Northern Africa, Egypt was still beneath the ocean. On the seafloor lives small shelled creatures made of calcium and carbon piles up and form into limestone. This limestone are then used to build the Pyramid.

10 million year ago, mountain starts to raise disrupting weather patterns causing the Earth to get colder and that is when the Ice age begins. After 3 million years have passed, grass starts to grow and trees starts to lessen. This is why our ancestors have to adapt since food resources is getting harder to find and they have to extend it. By 2.6 million years ago, hominids found silicon in a form of rocks. They use these rocks to create sharp edges and this how the stone age begins. Other than rocks, our ancestors also discovered fire. They used fire to cook food which gives them energy and supports their brain making them smarter.

200,000 years ago, the human shape has fully evolved and they can make more complex sounds. This is how they began to communicate and invent languages. Man can now move, communicate and have tools. Man starts to disperse into different continents. After 150,000 years have passed, humans have reached China, Europe and the Northeast Siberia. Despite the Ice Age the human develops the last skill we need which is writing. Glaciers starts to melt forming lakes. After the Ice age, the temperature starts to warm up and plants and animals are more plentiful. Man can finally settle in one place. As time passes by, the population starts to grow and they need to increase their food resources. Man learned how to plant seeds. (Stefany Wijaya)

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